What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a disorder that causes tissue that is similar to the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus (called the endometrium) to grow outside of the uterus. It usually involves the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissues that line the pelvis, though in some rare cases, tissues may be found beyond the pelvic region. With endometriosis, the endometrial-like tissue thickens, breaks down, and bleeds with each menstrual period. However, because this tissue has no way to leave the body, it becomes trapped, and surrounding tissue can become irritated, developing into scar tissue and adhesions.

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This disorder is often associated with the following signs and symptoms:

  • Painful periods.
  • Pain with sexual intercourse.
  • Excessive bleeding during or between periods.
  • Pain with urination or bowel movements.
  • Infertility.
  • Fatigue.
  • Constipation, bloating, or nausea.
  • And more.


Welcome to my practice. Let me introduce myself and my practice philosophy. I am a board certified OB/GYN in practice for over 20 years and have been a solo-practitioner on the Upper East Side of Manhattan since 2000. All deliveries are performed at The Mount Sinai Medical Center where I went to medical school and at Lenox Hill Hospital.

How is Endometriosis Diagnosed?

In order to diagnose endometriosis, you will need to meet with Dr. Tepper so that he can speak with your regarding your symptoms and past health history. He may also perform a pelvic exam to check for any abnormalities such as cysts or scarring. In certain cases, further testing may be required to get a better picture of what is happening inside of your body. These tests may include ultrasound, MRI, or laparoscopy, among others.

Endometriosis Treatment Options

Many individuals with endometriosis complain of discomfort and other symptoms that disrupt their daily lives. While there is no cure for this disorder, there are ways to manage symptoms. The best approach for you will depend on the severity of your symptoms, as well as your plans for pregnancy in the future. Possible treatment options may include:

  • Pain medications: If your endometriosis is causing painful symptoms, over-the-counter pain relievers such as Motrin, Advil, Aleve, or others may be recommended.
  • Hormone therapy: Painful symptoms may be reduced with supplemental hormones. This is because the rise and fall of hormones during your period cause endometrial implants to thicken, deteriorate, and bleed. Hormonal medications may slow the growth of endometrial tissue and prevent new implants of this tissue. Common hormonal therapies may include hormonal contraceptives, progestin therapy, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists and antagonists, or aromatase inhibitors.
  • Conservative surgery: For women with endometriosis who wish to become pregnant, surgery to remove the endometriosis implants while retaining the uterus and ovaries can increase your chances of future conception. This procedure may be performed laparoscopically or through traditional abdominal surgery.
  • Hysterectomy and ovary removal: For more severe cases of endometriosis or for women who do not wish to become pregnant in the future, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) along with oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) may be an effective option. It is important to understand that this surgery will result in menopause.

Can endometriosis cause headaches and dizziness?

Along with the severe and chronic pain associated with endometriosis, this condition can also cause severe migraines and occasional dizziness. These symptoms do not appear in every case, but individuals diagnosed with endometriosis with experience headaches or chronic dizziness should notify Dr. Tepper.

Can endometriosis cause high risk pregnancy?

Endometriosis is a fairly common condition amongst women, and many of these women can get pregnant and have healthy babies. However, pregnant individuals diagnosed with endometriosis are considered high risk pregnancies and should consult their physician along with Dr. Tepper to ensure safe consummation and childbearing measures.

Can endometriosis cause IBS?

It is very common for women with endometriosis to experience IBS as a symptom. In fact, women diagnosed with endometriosis are far more likely to have IBSu2013 besides severe pelvic pain and cramping, IBS is one of the most common endometriosis symptoms.

Can endometriosis cause low iron?

Anemia is directly correlated to your red blood cell count. Iron deficiency occurs when your body loses red blood cells faster than they can reproduce. Endometrosis can cause an excessive menstrual blood loss leading to the patient developing anemia.

Can endometriosis cause lower back pain?

It is common for endometriosis to cause back pain. Even in its early stages, endometriosis could spread to the lower back or thighs, causing varying levels of discomfort.

Can endometriosis cause migraines?

Yes, it is possible and fairly common for women with endometriosis to experience migraines. In fact, it is more likely to occur in women with endometriosis than those without.

Can endometriosis cause mood swings?

Endometriosis can be a severely painful experience and can cause intense mood swings as a result. Consult Dr. Tepper for more information about how to manage your mental health.

Can endometriosis cause neck pain?

Early stages of endometriosis are unlikely to cause neck pain, but later stages may cause pain in the neck or shoulders.

Can endometriosis cause odor?

While there are many unfavorable symptoms associated with endometriosis, foul smelling discharge is not one. Smelly discharge can be an indicator of another condition such as vaginosis, so consult Dr. Tepper with any concerning smells.

Can endometriosis spread to other organs?

Endometriosis initially attaches to the female reproductive organs like the uterus or ovaries. If left untreated, it can spread to nearby organs, such as the bowels, rectum or bladder. This spreading is what causes symptoms like IBS.

Can endometriosis stop your period?

Irregular or delayed periods have a couple of possible causes, but endometriosis is not recognized as one. If you notice multiple delayed or irregular periods, call Dr. Tepper to find out what might be causing it.

Can endometriosis turn into cancer?

If endometriosis is left untreated and symptoms get progressively worse, there is a possibility of the condition developing into epithelial ovarian cancer. If you think you may have endometriosis, seek care sooner rather than later.

Can you live a normal life with endometriosis?

Without treatment, endometriosis will continually decrease your quality of life significantly. If you seek treatment, you can find ways to manage your condition and lead a normal life.

Does a pap smear check for endometriosis?

A pap smear will not detect endometriosis. If you think you may have the condition, consult Dr. Tepper for a diagnosis.

Does being on the pill help endometriosis?

Hormonal birth control can help ease the symptoms of endometriosis as well as stop it from spreading. However, birth control pills will not cure endometriosis entirely.

Does endometriosis cause exercise pain?

Moderate exercise is encouraged to help ease the symptoms of endometriosis. However, you should be wary of pushing yourself to hard because this may increase your chances of flaring up.

Does endometriosis worsen with age?

Endometriosis is a progressive condition, meaning it gets worse over time. However, the condition does not necessarily worsen with age; as long as endometriosis is left untreated, it will worsen. Seeking care will lead to an improvement in the condition.

Does stress affect endometriosis?

Unfortunately, endometriosis and stress cyclically affect each other. A chronic and painful condition such as endometriosis can lead to stress in an individual, but stress can cause an increase in inflammation. Managing stress can reduce flare-ups.

Does the pill work for endometriosis?

Although birth control pills will not cure endometriosis, it can help prevent endometriosis from spreading. Additionally, birth control pills can ease some of the uncomfortable symptoms of endometriosis.

How do you explain endometriosis pain?

Pain tolerance varies in each individual and the severity of endometriosis is constantly fluctuating, therefore, explaining endometriosis pain is not always linear. However, key signs are usually intense pelvic pain, severe cramping, or sharp abdominal cramping.

How do you get endometriosis?

Retrograde menstrual flow is the most common cause of endometriosis. In this condition, some menstrual tissue flows up through the fallopian tubes, becoming lodged in the body.

How do you test for endometriosis?

There are a few methods for diagnosing endometriosis. For instance, a pelvic exam, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or laparoscopy could be used to determine your condition's severity and location.

Is brown discharge a sign of endometriosis?

Brown discharge could be a sign of endometriosis, but it could also be a sign of many other conditions. If you notice abnormal discharge, you consult Dr. Tepper before drawing conclusions.

Is there a blood test for endometriosis?

Though endometriosis deals with your menstrual flow and blood cells, a blood test is not a reliable way to diagnose the condition.

What aggravates endometriosis?

Besides stress, a poor diet is the most common aggravator of endometriosis. Gluten and fatty foods are the main culprits, but caffeine and alcohol can also contribute to flare-ups. Dr. Tepper can assist you with diet recommendations.

What are the first signs of endometriosis?

In the initial stages of endometriosis, an abnormally painful period and heavy flow are common indicators of the condition. Additionally, your period may last longer than the average.

What causes endometriosis flare ups?

Along with stress and a poor diet, poor sleep habits and alcohol can cause your endometriosis to flare up. It is important to manage your stress so you can ease your symptoms.

What does Stage 4 endometriosis mean?

There are four stages of endometriosis with four being the most severe. At stage four, a significant amount of adhesions are visible and the condition has reached both ovaries.

What does thoracic endometriosis feel like?

Some individuals may experience no symptoms with thoracic endometriosis. Those that do, however, can expect to feel shortness of breath, chest pain, and a cough.

What happens if endometriosis is left untreated?

Endometriosis is a progressive condition that spreads over time. If left untreated, it will progress to stage four and could develop into cancer.

What is endometriosis belly?

Endo belly is a long term bloating caused by endometriosis inflammation that can cause pain or discomfort.

What is the best pain relief for endometriosis?

Normal period pain relief methods are encouraged during endometriosis flare-ups. Heating pads can ease discomfort, and pain relievers like Ibuprofen and Aleeve have been known to treat cramps.

What is the latest treatment for endometriosis?

There are a few different methods to treat endometriosis such as a hysterectomy or a more conservative surgery if the patient hopes to become pregnant in the future. More recently, the FDA has approved Elagolix to moderate endometriosis pain.

What organs can endometriosis affect?

Endometriosis can affect nearly every lower organ in the body. In the beginning, it will affect the reproductive system including the fallopian tubes, ovaries, external uterus, and pelvic cavity. As it progresses, endometriosis could impact your bladder, bowel, stomach, cervix, and vulva.

Who is at risk for endometriosis?

Women who haven't given birth yet, started their period at an early age, have experienced short menstrual cycles of about 27 days, or have a low BMI are more likely to develop endometriosis. Additionally, women going through menopause may also develop the condition.

Will a hysterectomy cure endometriosis?

Unfortunately, a hysterectomy won't fully cure endometriosis, but can significantly improve it. Women who have hysterectomies will still need regular checkups to check on their condition.


Whether you are a new or returning patient, Dr. Tepper can assess your concerns and discuss your options to find the most comfortable and convenient care for you. To get started, call our office to set up an appointment.


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If you are experiencing the painful symptoms associated with endometriosis, please do not hesitate to contact us today. Dr. Tepper will work with you to deliver prompt treatment for symptom relief as well as an improvement in your overall daily comfort.

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